Ngo Dinh Can. Who are you?

(Part 5)


Nguyen Van Luc




Deng Sy should have followed Ngo Dinh Can heel soon to the other side of the world. But why did he avoid the death penalty? We look back on the case of Deng Sy.

Deng, who escaped the death penalty


May 8, 1963 is a memorable day. Because it was the inaugural day for the central Buddhist event of 1963, it was a tragedy for the fate of the First Republic.


Who is this tragedy? Up until now, no one has been able to confirm in a transparent way. That day, around 10:30 pm, there were all eight innocent children were massacred at Hue Radio.


Please repeat the names of the victims. Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, 12 years old. Huynh Ton Nu Tuyet Hoa, 12 years old, Nguyen Thi Phuc 15 years old. Le Thi Kim Khanh 17 years old, Tran Thi Phuoc Tu, 17 years old, Nguyen Thi Yen, 20 years old, Nguyen Van Dai 13 years old, and Dang Van Cong 13 years old.


They are all very young victims! Bullets or explosives accidentally without exception! But this is as if there is a choice of who to die?


That is the comments and questions equally important of this article. Dead bodies are usually the last witnesses and, as you ask them, they will denounce who the culprit is.


Stone stele “Monuments Martyrs” by Thua Thien Church built at the intersection of Le Loi - Hung Vuong, the old radio.



Through these victims, was the death knell reasonable for a regime?


Witnesses present at the scene confirm this. And public opinion at that time and even today, many people still think that the massacre at Hue radio was caused by the tank of Major Deng Si rolled dead children. And who directly responsible for this massacre was none other than Deng Sy?


How does the “tank” select only children who are not adults?


And how the machine from the distance of 50 meters, away from the radio, if shot, then adults die first? What Cause Is Childish?


Particularly, Ngo Dinh Can, before his death, confided to lawyer Vo Van Quan that he had not ordered Deng Sy to kill children before the radio station.


It is clear and certain that no one today thinks that Ngo Dinh Can was involved in the explosion.Right before military court hearing Ngo Dinh Can, prosecutor did not mention this issue.


Need an answer to the death of innocent dead children in front of Hue Radio? At this place, a monument has been erected to commemorate the spirit of the children. (There are actually 9 children, but a Catholic child, so the family requested to withdraw from the list.)


But after more than half a century, I think the focus of this article is not really on the search engines, because it takes a lot of time for the perpetrator to kill someone so far. Who?


But it is certain that Deng Sy was the third scapegoat who should have assumed the death sentence of Phan Quang Dong, Ngo Dinh Can. But he was lucky escape.


Therefore, I will provide an undisclosed evidence of that period. Evidence is convincing; This record may be the decisive factor that spared Deng Sy's life.


The second thing is, I want to write here that if convicted, in order to be fair, besides Major Dang Sy, his direct command must also be in joint responsibility.


Deng Sy could not kill himself and Lieutenant Nguyen Van Nhung could not bind himself to Diem's ​​brother, stab, and shoot himself!


Not only do they have to go to court as witnesses, but they also have to take responsibility for complicity if there is a real reason.


First, as a witness, the court forces TT. Tri Quang had to go to court, as he was the No. 1 important witness. He did not want the court to issue a warrant for him, if necessary, the police would escort him to court because he was present. in front of the radio station.


Yet the court did not dare to send this summons to the court. He is above the law. Where is justice?


Second, if you look at Deng Sy as the direct cause of the death of nine children, it is impossible not to mention the joint responsibility of Major General Dang Sy. The first was Nguyen Van Do, the chief of the sub-district of Hue. Colonel Do Cao Tri, commander of the 1st Division and especially Major General Le Van Nghiem, commander of the 1st tactical area.


If Deng Sy was sentenced to death, under the law Major General Le Van Nghiem was executed not because he was the order? Was the death sentence so despised to life imprisonment?


Is this one of the factors for the revolutionary court not dare to hand with Deng Sy?


I am also very sorry overseas, I have contacted Major Dang Sy twice. But both times he had begged for time and then he died in Washington DC.


The article has two parts, the first one based on the writings of the top witnesses present in the Hue radio incident.


At the beginning, the reader will see, witnesses say contradictory, he said chickens she said duck.And if based on such contradictory contradictions, the court is required to acquit Deng Si?


In the second half, the same court trial of Deng Sy. Everybody involved in the responsibility comes to court as a witness. The officers under Deng Sy are not called in court! Are people afraid of their testimonies?


But as we all know, this is a political case, so the conviction or acquittal does not depend on the courts but on the outside courts.


And thanks to that, Deng Sy escape the death penalty narrowly.

Part 1: Citing evidence on the night of May 8, 1963, at Hue radio.


The following witnesses' witnesses most commonly see with their own eyes what a vision was, how it was seen.



Nguyen Khac Tu , the leader of the Buddhist family, who was present from the beginning to the end by Venerable Tri Quang. Mr.Viet,


“A car named Ngo Binh Khoi rolled on both compatriots. Some screams scary. Ignore them, they keep on going to the masses. In the meantime, three pounder rifles shot dry, and spear grenades were spread out on each side. A series of guns and a loud explosion shook the radio. Gunfire still explode. In the radio, we go into the chambers in the chamber of Venerables, Venerable Duc, the governor and some of us. “


(Excerpted from Interstate web, Interstate website extracted from Lien Hoa magazine, issue dated 15th of 1965, Saigon.)


Comment: It was as if he wrote, when there was an explosion, he was in the station and hiding in a chambers with Venerables, Venerable Duc. So how could he see the tanks approaching with three pistol bursts? In particular, he was one of the witnesses to the massed-up tanks and spear grenades launched from all sides.


In the words of the witness, the victims died for three reasons: because the tanks rolled, because of the explosion and the bullets.


Dr. Erick Wulff


Venerable Thich Tri Quang (right) and Dr. Erich Wulff (middle). Photo: document N.Đ.X.


Interview with Prof. Erick Wulff of The Lotus Flower , Special Issue of Vesak, May 26, 1964. (quoted in Giao Dien). This interview occurred when the German doctor returned to visit Vietnam.


“On the night of May 5, 1963, my brother and brother Ton Ky, my medical students came to watch the turmoil in front of Hue radio. When we arrived, what made us panic was a series of guns. At that time, the armored vehicle pulled over, and I saw clearly that a car named “Ngo Dinh Khoi” had a 12-7 gun, pointing the gun at the crowd gathered around the radio station. I was shocked to hear loud explosions. Then another explosion followed. “


Next, he went to the morgue.


“I saw a terrible scene, seven corpses desolate, but can be recognized, the crook of broken head, the body crushed, blood flesh and sand with mixed brain be beating, and another body is completely broken pieces can not be recognized. Considering the corpses, I saw three bodies skull fractured, watching closely due to bullets (large gun size shot).Which is probably due to large guns on armored vehicles Ngo Dinh Khoi. This bullet made flying skulls, splashed out. “


Conclusion he replied:

 “Since I witnessed the massacre at Hue Radio Station, I am deeply moved by this brutal persecution and I find myself in a duty to support the struggle.”


A translation from Vietnamesische Lehrejahren, 1972 , pp. 129-142, quoted on Intersection and also in Khuong Viet, 2003 in Thai Kim Lan's “Unforgettable Days”. Wulff, a professor at Hue College of Medicine, from 1961-1967.


Between the interview and the excerpt of the German doctor's book there are many different details.


“I suddenly heard someone call my name. That's Rat, my student. Ty asked if I wanted to come along and listen to Thich Tri Quang's talk on the radio this morning, which would be broadcast in minutes and be transmitted outside by the loudspeakers in front of the radio.

A few minutes later there was the rumbling of an armored convoy.There are five armored vehicles appearing. A track looking straight into the campus of the radio. It stopped just a few steps away from me and me. And then the first bullets were fired from the armor guns of the armored vehicles, and we heard about ten gunfire chattering and dry. I could clearly see the flames emanating from the throats of two van cars in the tub at the end of Truong Tien bridge. Then a series of rifles began firing. Then I met Paul Miller, a young American working in a university office. He said that “they have gone through here”.Major Dang Sy, the head of the army, told him to disappear. There is going to be a murder, because he has received orders from superiors to suppress the violence at the radio at any cost. “


Later, Dr. Wulff was led by a nurse to the back of the morgue. At this point, he noted the following


“There is no light. In the dim light of the glazed light, we found seven bloody human bodies placed on three stone examination tables. From legs to chest, their bodies are intact. But the five corpses, all children, have no heads. In a woman there are bullet holes in her arms, shoulders and neck. The armored vehicles crushed children's heads, perhaps as they climbed past the radio fence and protruded their head first. If you are wise as an adult, that is, lying down on the ground when the gun starts to explode, you probably have not been hurt.

Upon arriving at the university professor's residence, I hurried to Professor Krainick's room. By accident, Krainick was reading the family letter tape recorder to ask the children. In the panic when she and her husband heard me tell the story of what had just happened, she forgot to turn off the computer. This tape was used as evidence in September 1963 by the United Nations Viet Nam Commission, accompanied by the original testimony of Krainick. “


Comment: Probably the German professor's testimony is considered to be of the most credible value, since he is a more objective foreigner. For some Buddhists of the time, he was not only a leading witness but also the first benefactor of the 1963 event. On April 14, 1964, E. Wulff was warmly welcomed on the occasion of his return. Hue again after the day of the coup. All that honor was given to him as a friend of Hue. He was welcomed by the Venerables Thich Tri Quang and Thich Don Hau with fences on both sides. Therefore, he was invited as a witness in September 1963 with a tape recording of the incident with Mrs Krainick's grandparents, in front of the UN Viet Nam Committee. But try to compare his two narratives.


·                     First, there is a mistake, if not explained, will cause misunderstanding. At one point he said that Rat was sometimes Ton That Ky. Is there a difference in the name change because Ton That Ky does not want to reveal his name so Mr. Wolff had to call off like that?

·                     Second, he wrote, when he arrived, he heard a series of guns, followed immediately by armored vehicles. He must be mistaken, waiting for the armored vehicles to come and shoot.

·                     Third, you can even hear and count that there are about 10 cannon shots (probably bullets?) Shot. This must ask the weapons specialist, can count the guns fired? There's a place he wrote: “Seeing five armored vehicles approaching and firing.” Actually in a stressful situation and may get into turmoil, it is hard to have accurate records like that.Psychological tests produce false situations, and then ask for answers that look, hear, remember. Ninety percent of people tested were unable to answer as they did.

·                     Fourth, and if you quote from the excerpt you extracted, you and Ty saw the distant weeks are beginning to scare and rouse each other across the radio fence, across the street to look toward the station. When gunshots explode, they run down a nearby alley.But reading his description, as if he was an observer, or a guest, calm and calm, standing a few feet away, hearing and counting 10 rounds, seeing the whole scene.

I'm just asking, where do you stand? Unable to answer, he was just a scoundrel!

·                     Thursday, he told a friend through a friend named Paul Miller said meeting with Deng Sy and Deng Sy said it must go away, because there is going to be a scene of chaos and murder. Having believed in the doctor's testimony, Major Dang Sy had been ordered not only to be scrapped but also obliged to massacre the protesters. This evidence is quite important because there are strategies to slaughter fellow Buddhists that evening? Mr. Wolff must testify of this and reaffirm his statement. If he confirmed that Deng Sy said so, the case of Deng Sy is very simple because of the answer.

Unfortunately, he left Vietnam more than a month before the Dang Sy trial was brought to trial.

·                     Sixth, according to the children, were massacred by over a radio barrier of about 1m50.So, instead of dying next to the radio station, they die at the radio fence. This is an issue that needs special attention. This evidence is unstable because of breaking the field rules.One thing still haunts me. Why are victims only children and adolescents? If the ammunition shoots like that, not only will the children die and adults will die without it?


·                     Saturday, he was the first, before Dr. Le Khac Quyen had the privilege of testing corpses.I have brought this story to the doctors and they said that if it was not an autopsy expert, they would not be qualified to be able to review and assert the wounds. Can not they identify a bullet wound, or explosive? On this point it can be said that, despite the death of testimonies, not forced to go, since then it is difficult to thoroughly and accurately test. A regular doctor, not specialized, has no way of distinguishing a wound from grenades or plastic explosives, bullets, etc. Is not that easy? Nevertheless, this is a very important test, because in many cases the only witnesses that can trace the crime is the corpse.The dead body speaks, denies. Although he was not a mortician, though he was illiterate by candlelight, and although time would not allow him to stay for long periods of time, he measured deep wounds or wide to know exactly what wounds caused by explosives. He asserted that: careful observation, he thought it was probably because of the projectile shot fired flying the skull and splashed out. He also noted that the car with the sign Ngo Dinh Khoi shot again. At times, he said, five bodies were crushed, but from head to toe.Later, he said the other seven corpses are crushed, crushed, completely crushed.


Intact and crushed must be different? Five bodies and seven corpses must also be different?


You do not believe in rereading. Can not get off the hook? He probably never saw Baancheng trial.


Conclusion: The victims died as a result of machine gun bullets from Ngo Dinh Khoi armored vehicles.


The two texts whose content is written by a witness has many points of contention in detail, none of the two texts are so similar that they are written by two witnesses rather than by one person...


I just keep an idea about the scene and explosives. Normally, only children are gathered around radio stations, and adults, standing far and below. In the excerpts, this is a plastic explosion and caused by the hands of the United States. Where is the truth?


TT. Thich Tri Quang 

In fact, Tri Quang did not directly write about the incident of Hue radio, but he recalled and entrusted Thai Kim Lan with his permission. Therefore, this document is considered official. This record is said to be the most important and of the highest level of credibility by a spiritual leader, the soul of the Hue radio incident.


TT. Tri Quang said:

Up to now, I personally went with the secret teacher down to the radio.The governor said that the command not to broadcast Buddhism, please let the teachers know that this is beyond my control. I asked to invite the governor to settle in place. It was almost dark. Buddhists stand by the radio, outside the street and Truong Tien bridge. The new governor arrived with the secretary, me and the governor, stood up high, not to say anything, the outside of the water spray hose very strong, followed by two tanks entered the machine gun and grenades exploded. . Some of the Buddhists in the upper corner of the radio station, near where we were standing, were thrown grenades. They were the first martyrs of the 1963 campaign.

Then, in two assault tanks, one secretly killed me. The enforcer is Lieutenant United. When pointing guns, I was hit by a member of the same car. The other command was fired, not fired, fear of death by the master of the secretary and the governor, the governor. After being blamed for not shooting all three of them.

The gun stopped, the tank immediately pulled away. Phong, police and Uyen, military men and some soldiers, dressed as fighting in a murderous radio station, looked at us with a loud voice: “Viet Cong broke in, throwing deadly grenades.” And look I want to shoot. I said, “And you are supporting the VC. It is true that chickens give birth to chickens. ''


Comment; Through this narrative, there are many things that go against all these witnesses and witnesses:

·                     Firstly, TT. Tri Quang, the Messenger, the governor, the governor is not in the station as many confirmed, for example, according to Nguyen Khac Tu, the head of the Buddhist family, said he was present from the beginning, always next to Tri Quang. They are standing in the high places, to observe and evaluate the situation of people underneath explosive, can explode at any time.

·                     Second, very important is the school. Must identify the Site. The scene was at the corner of the radio's upper courtyard, near us, thrown by grenades. This means that the scene next to the radio is the corner of the upper court, thus rejecting the assumption made by Dr. E. Wulff that they were shot dead at the radio fence of 1 meter 50 meters. 50 meters away from the station, 60 meters. The curious children must approach the kill. How can the children climb past the 1 meter high iron fence?

·                     Third, the scene in the corner of the radio, meaning there are steps to go up. It also rejected all of the testimonies of Vu Ngu Chieu and others claiming that two children had been crushed and crushed. That means asserting that the weeks away do not climb up the radios to kill them. The dense crowded like that, it can not move to the foot of the radio. And if it kills them, it first has to grind up the fellow Buddhists who live in the radio. Remember, no older person is a victim of the radio incident. The only child factor is the idea that curious children often stand near the radio. This overwhelmed the idea that the majority of the population thought they had been dead for weeks.

·                     Fourth, they are shot and killed by bullets and grenades. This problem is the most serious problem, please discuss the opinion of Lieutenant General Ton That Dinh and Deng Sy to court.

·                     Fifth, according to the Venerable, there is a conspiracy to assassinate Tri Quang with a good identity. That is Lieutenant and his accomplices. But the failure was only because someone took the arm while fear of death spread to other people. It is only regrettable that Tri Quang did not just name the person who tried to assassinate the Venerable. But must have a higher role than Major Dang Sy and the Governor? Who is that? Can only have Tri Tri Quang have answers? Sorry he did not say. Time to go to court, I go looking forever do not see United States Where? It must have been Tri Quang ignored.


It is clear that Tri Quang knows well who is the mastermind of the order? And the result of the massacre of 8 innocent children? Anyway, TT should also be clear once to wash the tainted blood on Hue radio for the soul of the children? Did not go to court? But do not say, silence is another matter?


Part 2: The case of Major Dang Si before the Revolutionary Court


The Hue radio incident happened on May 8, 1963. That led to the collapse of the regime of Ngo Dinh Diem on November 1, 1963. But the case of Hue Radio until 2-6-1964 was put on trial in Saigon. That is more than a year different from the case of Lieutenant Colonel Phan Quang Dong and Ngo Dinh Can was put on trial May 19-1964 and sentenced to death.


After all, there is the benefit of it.


The longer the time, the more likely it is for the accused to escape, the more exciting the incident will be. Second, the offense was Hue, the head of the 8-5-1963 incident. But no one is forbidden to change the court to the court to be more independent, avoiding the pressure of public opinion.The Attorney General's Court ruled in Saigon to avoid 'Fear of publicity'. In principle, there are three cases: Use at the scene of the crime. The court where the offender was arrested. The court at the place where the offender is detained.

Deng Sy is a small thing, balancing two religious forces at the moment is a big deal. Military governments are all too weak to move, but know how? Especially the Nguyen Khanh government.


Before Deng Sy to court for a week, there was an article in Truong Trung: How do the Hue and Trung Viet people think? Deng Sy to court in Saigon. For Hue public opinion: The massacre at Radio Station is only the last step of a program of eradicating religions. People know that too. At the hearing of Ngo Dinh Can, all Saigon newspapers wrote that the people had prosecuted Can before the trial. For Dang Sy too, the people have already tried but not wait to the Revolutionary Court?


So Deng Sy in the eyes of the people of Hue is obviously a criminal and his punishment is a death sentence. Obviously, bring the tank to the radio station, then the moat, gun fire, grenades explode in the sky. 8 child deaths catastrophic. All the people of Hue, especially the Buddhists that night, have the opportunity to observe firsthand from the beginning to the end. Do you argue?


Yet over 50 years, we still have to look back.


But who are the people who want to come along behind Deng Sy? Who ordered? A reporter for the stance, outside Hue vague given that such is not given:

“We do not want to spend the jurisdiction of the court as a two newspapers in Saigon did, so we did not want to imitate them named chief stated age range here. Names that do not fade in the people of Hue was where? Never.''

(Newspaper stance, May 6-1964)

According to the statement above, Hue people know, said chief culprit is who are you?


Finally, the government gave the solution brought to Saigon treatment Sy Dang. Only regret is the Court Revolution not treated Dang Sy in Hue, where Dang Sy sin, for the people who have seen the truth before the eyes, the truth today is still visible ahead, self his ear to try the trial, witnesses and defendants say in court about what had happened.


“So it was not afraid of his people die, they are just afraid he would not be silenced to death. Notes try to think if between buildings he even started to coffee beans out of these upper mourning he received orders to implement, there is not painting it all. People are screaming up because rứa ... .. If I had died, sin that he died alone, he will declare the end luxuriant lum. If not, they must find a way for him not to tell. He learned history remembered not for Nuremberg? Know how many war criminals in prison before committing suicide before being brought to trial ... I'm worried because rứa Dang Sy.”

(Newspaper stance 6-64 months)


Therefore, the processing Dang Sy did many disappointed to the point of thinking:


“First of communist aggression, at the prospect of the Revolution collapsed, confidence collapsed, the text we are full of humiliation of the people of Hue, who have the training to do the revolution from the right after night carpet radio monitoring, so that today find themselves betrayed. ''

(Lap Truong 6-6-64)


Artless treatment is faith in the revolution collapsed and the government feels betrayed?


Venerable Thich Tri Quang was given an antidote both to debug both to calm the public, he was in Saigon again for clemency for Dang Sy simultaneously hit a telegram to Hue which read as follows:


“We advocated clemency for him not to care about what the other details.”


Forgive the unforgivable that the death penalty can not die. That is the world of Dang Sy. But I wonder as what TT. Tri Quang may clemency for Dang Sy? And why no leniency for Phan Quang Dong and Ngo Dinh?


Mean really this is a political case. And based on 4-64 day decree February 18, 1964 set the Revolutionary Court under Gen. Nguyen Khanh. This law “retroactively”. And so there was a list of 267 of the accused to appear before the Revolutionary Court. Including prominent cases such as Phan Quang Dong (agencies and intelligence agents) and Duong Van Hieu (Head of Delegation Secret Service)


To quote Ly Chanh Trung journal Learn about the situation at that time entitled “Loan to value”.


“Because that since several months now, achievements his only Khanh after the revision of being overturned, the people of the South have tasted the fun of Freedom to the streets, free to knock flipped, killing, lying, pillory. Whatever you want down the road. Down the road is the victor. Hooray democracy. Really have a lot of government goodwill by the government this: luxuriant xoe running from group to block the other, caressing promise to please everyone.”


But I found no one to please all.






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