Ngo Dinh Can. Who are you?

(Part 2)


Nguyen Van Luc




In the autobiography of Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc, his brothers like Ngo Dinh Luyen, very good, were sent to France at the age of 12. Grade six finishes fourth grade dance. End of fourth grade leapt grade 2 .. Always head of class.The graduation was accepted into the large school, École Centrale Paris (ECP).


Next p1


People before the public!


And Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc himself also studied in Rome and Paris. And one of the first four bishops, the third in Vietnam at the time. In that self-narrative, Archbishop Thuc did not talk about Ngo Dinh Nhu's study as well as his own.


("Autobiographie de Mgr Pierre Martin Ngo Dinh Thuc", Archege de Hue, extracted in Le Doctrinaire).


In "Curriculum Vitae De Mgr. Pierre Martin Ngo-Dinh-Thuc " wrote in 1978 when he was 80 years old

Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc (1897-1984) (LIFE)


"Mes études à Rome, du point de vue humain, étaient une suite de succès." Docteur en philosophie, en théologie, en droit canonique - avec mention très bien ou bien - puis la license d'enseignement à la Sorbonne. Je rentrais à Hué, en 1927. Nommé professeur d'abord chez les Frères vietnamiens fondés par Mgr. Allys, puis au Grand-séminaire, puis proviseur du collège de la Providence, and then ordered by the Vatican Tribunal to be the Apostle of the Apostles in Vinh Long. 

J'étais le troisième vietnamien appelé à l'épiscopat. Le premier fut Mgr. JB Nguyen-bong Tong, cochinchinois, nommé Phat-tan au Tonkin. Le second, Mgr. Cân-mon frère spirituel puisque fils spirituel de Mgr. Allys - occupait à Vinh-long un vicariat apostolique détaché du grand Vicar de Saigon dont l'évêque était le saint Mgr. Dumortier.On était en l'année 1938. "

(Source: "Curriculum Vitae De Mgr. Pierre Martin Ngô-Dinh-Thuc", February 13, 1978.) "EINSICHT, Jahrang 28 Sonder Mommer, pp. 14-17, April 1998)


My study in Rome from a human point of view seems to be a series of successes. I won every award: doctorate in philosophy, theology, canon law - with honors or very good - and the teaching certificate at the Sorbonne. I returned to Hue in 1927. I was first appointed as a professor in the ranks of Vietnamese monks founded by Monsignor Allys. Allys, then at the Seminary, then the principal of Providence, from which I followed the Apostolic See to the Apostolic Vicariate of Vinh Long.


I am the third Vietnamese to be ordained bishop. The first is Mgr. JB Nguyen Ba Tong, Southerner, took Phat Diem in Tonkin. Second, Monsignor. My spiritual strength is the spiritual son of Monsignor Allys of the Vinh Long apostolic church separated from the large Saigon Diocese with the bishop of the holy bishop.Dumortier. That was 1938."


One may know more about Ngo Dinh Thuc in a document by Charles Keith entitled "Annam Uplifted: The First Vietnamese Catholic Bishop and the Birth of a National Church, 1919-1945"featured four bishops smoke. These ordinations from 1933 to 1945, they were powerful bishops and honored indigenous Catholics in the spirit of the Vatican wanting to localize the local church and make Vietnamese religious education gradually gradually go to self-governing.

(Charles Keith, "The first Vietnamese Catholic." Bishop and the Birth of a National Church, 1919-1945.) Translated by Pham Minh Ngoc, posted on the forum)


It is a common honor for the Vietnamese Church, especially for Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc. After being ordained, Ngo Dinh Diem and Ngo Dinh Nhu went to many places and people knew little about Diem since this time. As soon as later in the United States, character Ngo Dinh Thuc outperformed his younger brother Ngo Dinh Diem.


Later, the grandson called him by Uncle Nguyen, Archbishop Nguyen Van Thuan, has a greater honor than the Cardinal in the Vatican, the most important sheriff in the tide and received the special favor of GH Phao Lo II. It can not be easy in a family to get such good children.


Ngô Đinh Nhu, intelligent, witty, knowledgeable, knowledgeable, confident, but heavy on theory, heavy on the plan. Temperament cold, stubborn and not cause sympathy as well as the trust of comrades.


Both brothers are heavy family. And if enough determined, Ngo Dinh Nhu can avoid the disaster for both brothers. The biggest thing that ruined his career was his wife. Nhu is an excuse for the people to hate their family Ngo. Doan Moi commented that Vietnamese people are not mature enough to accept a person like Nhu. Especially the arrogant claims of her in the Buddhist affair as adding fuel to the fire.


Mr. Ngo Dinh Thuc was relatively young. But gradually he became the nail for the cursed life and shunned the regime. On the episcopal authority, Bishop Thuc has caused controversy over reverent bishops, priests and religious immigrants since 1957.


In a letter, three pages long, dated April 29, 1957, written in Vinh Long, GM Thuc has spoken out loud, denouncing many priests who have violated migration money and criticizing schools. Migrating to open schools without any qualifications. While the migrants claimed that they were devoted to him .. In contrast, Gm Thục showed that many migrants have betrayed him.

Please quote:

"Some bishops have asked the ministry to arrest him for advice.Another Bishop's soldiers hit the National Forest. I am willing to answer their questions. "

(Nguyen Van Trung's private photocopy)


In my opinion, Thục's critique may be true in many respects. If there is any form of criticism that has created internal divisions within the Church. There are other events, such as a GM soldier fighting the National Reality Unknown.


About life, he also followed the power, arrogance and ignorance of Buddhism. All around him, most of the flatterers caught him off guard. In short, he did not have the wisdom to separate the Way from Life, to direct foot to life.


He was really a grave burier buried in the First Republic.


Edward Miller also wrote: "Diem at first seemed to follow Thuc into the priesthood."

(Edward Miller, Misalliance, The United States and the Fifth Republic of South Vietnam, 2013, p. 24).


Unfortunately, these letters were not publicly known to Archbishop Nguyen Van Thuan and are not known to anyone today.

The remaining question is for what reason Duong Van Minh decided to stop the rejection of indulgences for Ngo Dinh Can? The simplest reason is that they are disgraceful, suspicious and not used.


According to Edward Miller, the start of a coup plot consists of only three officers: Minh, Don and Kim. After the unrest in 1960, all three felt insulted by being investigated for involvement in the unsuccessful 1960 coup.


"The resentment that Don, Minh and Kim felt for the brothers had been smoldering since 1960, when they had endured the humiliation of being investigated on suspicion of involvement in the paratroopers' failed coup."

(Edward Miller, ibid., P. 282).


The second personal reason, according to ls. Lam Trinh Trinh, interviewed Colonel Nguyen Van Y, Colonel Y, that Duong Van Minh, when fighting with Binh Xuyen, captured the gold. He was hiding. But both Colonel Nguyen Van Y and Defense Secretary Tran Trung Dung have this file.Colonel Y presented Diem files, Diem sent Colonel Y burned documents in front of him to clear DVM blame. However, Duong Van Minh still hatred Diem and seek revenge.


Finally, Ngo Dinh Can was sentenced to death as everyone knew.

The study of the person and activities of Mr. Ngo Dinh Can can not find out the documents on the American side. But it's not easy to find an American document written about Mr. Can. Please mention some familiar authors who are close to Mr. Can as Stanley Karnow, 1997 for Viet Nam. A History, Ellen J. Hammer, 1987 with A Death in November, Seth Jacob, 2006 with America's Miracle Man in Viet Nam, Mc Allister, James, 2008 Only Religions Count in Viet Nam: Thich Tri Quang and the Viet Nam war. Langguth A .J., 2000 Our Vietnam and Miller, Edward, 2013, Missalliance, Ngo Dinh Diem, The United States, and the Fate of South Viet Nam.


Despite the small number of documents, we also try to gather the key traits of Mr. Can.


The writer chose some of Ellen J. Hammer's ideas in A Death in November regarding the November coup. E. Hammer:

"Probably the youngest sister to stay in Hue, he lives secretly unknown and does not hold a formal position of government. His position is only adviser on political parties. But people know him very much in directing the regime's political and military activities in the central provinces and he is known for being brutal. "

(Ellen J. Hammer, A Death in November, 1987, p. 78)


Mr. Can is a pragmatic, unpretentious, intelligent man with an expectation of legitimacy, a radical Nationalist with a practical political instinct, with an understanding of the use of power in his hands. .


Evidence is that he has suppressed the Dai Viet and Vietnamese Kuomintang groups in the central region. They can not operate in the Central region when Cẩn is ​​still there. He has his own political and intelligence networks. But Can's men's reports do not always match the information received in Saigon by Nhu. To be exact, Mr. Can's men were not as talented as he thought, so they were invaded by the CIA.


Local political authority, ostensibly handed to Ho Dac Khuong - a specialty of Hue. Ancestral hereditary lineage from his life to father in Hue court. Ho Dac Khuong family has relied on the Buddha as a credit in a large area of ​​Buddhism.


Is it necessary to have so many factors to sit firmly in Hue? Mr. Can has all these factors, but lacks a fundamental element, especially he is not a Buddhist. But always stand behind the help of Buddhism.


An assessment of the Buddhist movement in the Central will help to understand more about the views and positions of Mr. Ngo Dinh Can.


When the director of Cao Van Luan contacted Can to tell about Hue's professors and students protesting the 25th anniversary of Ngo Dinh Thuc's bishop's ordination. Mr. Cẩn proved helpless to a brother Bishop daily pushed Ngo Dinh Can out of power in Hue. Be isolated because his brother is ignorant, arrogant to ridiculous. There is a letter asking the parishes to ask them to support the president.


Thuc wants to strengthen his brother, the more he hurt his brother.


Talking about Cao Van Luan, without him, Hue University did not have the opportunity to develop so quickly. This university, it was built by Diem. It was like a secret dream, an ambition of his own as well as a pride of all Hue people. Yet later on, it was here that triggered a political storm that overthrew the man who gave birth to it.


Ellen Hammer has commented on Can Care based on Cao Van Luan's claim, although Can not have high academic levels and certainly is not a respected type of democracy. But he was more knowledgeable and close to the people than any of the Ngo Dinh Diem's ​​brothers.


Complain about the lack of understanding of Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc does not distinguish the religious, the life. Carefully told the abbot, "But my hands are tied. My brother, the archbishop does not listen to me anymore. You have better go to Saigon and tell President Diem. "(Ellen J. Hammer, ibid., P. 105)


The irony here is that Ngô Aình Thpc was bishop in Vĩnh Long for 23 years, and the Vatican was smart enough to never nominate Ngo Dinh Thuc to govern Saigon, the reason the Vatican knew want to separate power and authority. Should not a leading Catholic president have a new archbishop headed by a president?


The selection of Archbishop Nguyen Van Binh as a moderate has balanced the relationship between power and authority. Archbishop Bong never showed close contact with the Ngo Dinh Diem government. He avoided going to the Presidential Palace and avoided reception if he could.And always keep a distance just enough.


The delivery of Ngo Dinh Thuc to Hue, far from the power center of Saigon and perhaps the most fun person would be Ngo Dinh Nhu? Diem could endure the elder brother, but Nhu was not patient enough, Nhu was less disturbed by his brother's bereavement as a bishop who interfered in his affairs. The government is foolishly wise, recommends this person, recommends the other, even eliminates the one you do not like. He is a religious, not a life, does not understand the humanity of a person who does not know the life. But only willing to listen to the words of the gentleman flattering.


I have had many opportunities to comment on the face of boredom, not revelation on the face of Nhu when he must attend the ceremony hosted by Ngo Dinh Thuc at the University of Dalat in the 1960s. Going back, he disappeared, never eating a pastry, drinking a glass of wine congratulated as the ministers, MPs. Mr. Thuc went to where there was a flock of flies, the shuttle picked up from the airport, hurriedly hurried up the path to the University.


When he took office in Hue, General Tran Van Don was the mobilizer of the army to welcome a Catholic Bishop. It is true that the flatterer and rebellion Ngo Dinh Thi Nhat hated most of the generals.


(This is not the first time, Bishop Thuc left Hue when he was a priest and he was a professor at the Hue College before being appointed bishop of Vinh Long. Pope once again campaigned Pope Paul VI for the new government to return to Hue as the old one, but failed)


But both the Vatican and Nhu did not realize that Ngo Dinh Thuc's presence in Hue was a scourge for the Catholic Church as well! Hue with a history of authority, a closed tradition with any intrusion of authority from the outside to the sick. How can they accept the shadow of a sovereign bishop, towering over the sky of Huế? I was in Hue, I understood the feelings of the people of this country, poor to nothing to poorer. Land, industry almost no. They live by the donation of the Hue children sent to work and sent to pay civil servants, soldiers on the spot.


But Hue is always hidden ring, but boiling hot as the kitchen smoldering through the silent appearance.


After all, most of the political upheaval comes from here.


Therefore, only one person, Ngo Dinh Can, can live in Hue and grasp the situation that people call Cẩn. A name may be dear, but many despise. And Cui rarely steps out of Hue, but what he also knows, as in the palm of his hand and he has ruled Hue through the hands of his minions in Hue with his hands folded velvet.


Thanks to that hand-covered velvet, Can also help to restore monastery, the scene, travel intimate and cover for Tri Quang.


But perhaps the only mistake in the political life of Ngo Dinh Can may have been to misjudge Tri Quang.


Hammer concluded, "The Mustard had underestimated Tri Quang.


On May 8, Tri Quang emerged from hidden darkness for many years under the roof of Tu Dam Pagoda and became the leading political figure and political power in Vietnam.


When Thuc left Hue, Can still believed that he could still be the man of the situation, a bridge between government and Buddhism.


Comment on the activities of Ngo Dinh Can in Hue

The activities of Mr. Ngo Dinh Can is a criminal activity, ounterintelligence newspapers are not within the framework of administrative organizations. It is a secret operation. Mu Huong called Ngo Dinh Can secret police a "super-organization" without "puppet" can be compared with.


(Nguyen Thi Ngoc Hai, "Tran Quoc Huong - Intelligence Commander," General Press, Ho Chi Minh City, p. 122)


It is because of its secrecy, operating outside the government machinery has created many bad scandals, rumors spread rumors. Because kidnapping is usually kidnapping, no warrant, no trial and indefinite imprisonment.


Even in the counterintelligence industry, Ngo Dinh Can secret police are also suspected by agencies such as the Security Forces of the Army, Special Forces, and the Political Research Service. Although each sector has different areas of activity. Tran Kim Tuyen's intelligence department focuses on internal security such as investigating opposition parties. Do Ma's security agency is concerned about military security. Le Quang Tung's special forces consisted of a regiment whose primary task was to protect the President.


In the interview of Mr. Lam Le Trinh with Duong Van Hieu, Head of the Central Mission of the Central Region, "Head of the delegation Duong Van Hieu spoke out," said Duong Van Hieu as follows:

Colonel Nguyen Van Y (1922-2012). Source:

Colonel Nguyen Van Y, General Director of Police, as well as Tran Kim Tuyen, Le Quang Tung (Special Forces) and Do Mau do not like me. "


(Lam Sin Trinh, "Awakening, National and Communist", in his post, Duong Van Hieu, page 425)


(Duong Van Hieu, a native of Ha Nam, North Vietnam in a middle-class family, attends Louis Pasteur College, holds a Diplôme Diplôme d 'Early primaires supérieures). Married in 1948, his father is Dr. Nguyen Van Tam, in collaboration with Le Huu Tu, Phat Diem. After the Geneva Accords in the South, he was Vo Nhu Nguyen, Director of Public Security of Central Vietnam recruited in the police sector, holding the position of Head of CA-CS Trung Nguyen. Then became Chief of Police Department of Thua Thien Hue Province and Hue City. In 1957, the governor of Thua Thien Nguyen Dinh Can and the delegate of the government Ho Dac Khuong introduced enthusiastically to President Diem. In 1958, he was assigned to the Special Task Force for Central Vietnam (SADC) working in Saigon.


Although Mr. Duong Van Hieu did not clarify his dislike. But we can still find out as follows:

There are many intelligence departments, although they are divided into areas of activity or scope of work. But there is still cross and footing. For example, Mr. Duong Van Hieu, Head of Mission working in the Central. But after being moved to the South of operation, the headquarters was in Le Van Duyet camp. He went to South to work under Mr. Can's instructions. But when he needed to report something, he only officially reported to Ngo Dinh Nhu, or when it mattered, he met directly General Diem. Sometimes he just sent some copies of the report to Mr. Can.


Although Duong Van Hieu's activities are confidential and independent. But in terms of administration, he was paid a salary by the National Police, so all operating expenses, such as wages, food, and judgments, were paid by the Administration Department of the Police Department, Administered by Nguyen Thanh Assist. Because officially, in secret administration, he still belongs to Public Security Bureau of Thua Thien. Because there are special work that General Nha does not provide the means of money, then through Vo Van Hai with money taken from the Presidential Black Fund to cover. This amount does not matter just as a bonus or incentive. Considering that in terms of Administration, Nguyen Van Y do not doubt? Mr. Duong Van Hieu also revealed that his delegation did not receive any of Mr. Can.


Because of the way of doing so, because there is no such public office as director - for example, in order to have a place to live, Duong Van Hieu must own money to buy a house in Xa Cong Ly .And because he did not work directly with Can, he was later suspected of being too close to Saigon and causing difficulties for him as well as Pham Thu Duong, Both Nguyen Van Minh, Secretary of Can is also suspected. (Lam Trinh, ibid., P. 437)


On the side of the Revolutionary Court, later put Duong Van Hieu in court and see him as the mastermind and responsible for many arrests and assassinations of people by the order Ngo Dinh Can, in my opinion, is very ambiguous. For example, the assassinations of dissidents such as Nguyen Bao Toan, Ta Chi Diep and Vu Tam Anh. On this point, Duong Van Hieu replied to Lam Sin Trinh, "We do not contact. We are not responsible for hunting down opposition figures. "According to Duong Van Hieu, it was later learned that this work was being conducted by Judge Khuyen Hai and his teammates in the Special Police Division of the Police Department. Colonel Nguyen Van Y killed Nguyen Bao Toan and Ta Chi Diep.


However, what I am surprised to believe is that Duong Van Hieu revealed that his staff consisted of only eight employees and two typists. With these eight employees can manipulate the network of communist spies?


And if you know more or less, there is a bad prejudice about him. In which many talked about secret mission of Ngo Dinh Can.


But can I affirm that the Hue people themselves really do not know the specific work and work of this delegation like? Positive aspects are effective, people are not known.


For example, the Central Special Forces broke all of the system of the Zone 5 message system within two years and has since spread to Quang Ngai, Quang Tri, Binh Thuan and Quy Nhon.


This achievement was so great that a legion was unlikely to pacify.


Even Tran Van Don, who was a General of the 1st Corps in the Central, was virtually ignorant of the effective anti-Communist activities of the Central Special Forces. He underestimated Mr. Can's ability to stop communist intelligence engaging in the National Machine. That proved at the position of Commander of Army I at that time, he did not know anything about Agent Can he deal with communists.


That gives us the following lesson: The officers of the West left are often lacking in Nationalism, lacking in anti-communist ideals.


They were just office workers, depressing and incompetent, after the overthrow of the First Republic. They have no political vision, no plans, no programming and are completely helpless, passive from the early days after 1963.


Such a general, but even so ignorant of ordinary people.





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