Dinh Can. Who
Nguyen Van Luc
the autobiography of Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc, his brothers like Ngo
Dinh Luyen, very good, were sent to France at the age of 12. Grade
six finishes fourth grade dance. End
of fourth grade leapt grade 2 .. Always head of class.The graduation
was accepted into the large school, École Centrale Paris (ECP).
People before the public!
And Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc himself also studied in Rome and Paris. And
one of the first four bishops, the third in Vietnam at the time. In
that self-narrative, Archbishop Thuc did not talk about Ngo Dinh
Nhu's study as well as his own.
("Autobiographie de Mgr Pierre Martin Ngo Dinh Thuc", Archege de
Hue, extracted in Le Doctrinaire).
Vitae De Mgr. Pierre
Martin Ngo-Dinh-Thuc " wrote
in 1978 when he was 80 years old
Archbishop Ngo Dinh
Thuc (1897-1984) (LIFE)
"Mes études à Rome, du point de vue humain, étaient une suite de
succès." Docteur en philosophie, en théologie, en droit canonique -
avec mention très bien ou bien - puis la license d'enseignement à la
Sorbonne. Je rentrais à Hué, en 1927. Nommé professeur d'abord chez
les Frères vietnamiens fondés par Mgr. Allys, puis au
Grand-séminaire, puis proviseur du collège de la Providence, and
then ordered by the Vatican Tribunal to be the Apostle of the
Apostles in Vinh Long.
J'étais le troisième vietnamien appelé à l'épiscopat. Le premier fut
Mgr. JB Nguyen-bong Tong, cochinchinois, nommé Phat-tan au
Tonkin. Le second, Mgr. Cân-mon frère spirituel puisque fils
spirituel de Mgr. Allys - occupait à Vinh-long un vicariat
apostolique détaché du grand Vicar de Saigon dont l'évêque était le
saint Mgr. Dumortier.On était en l'année 1938. "
(Source: "Curriculum Vitae De Mgr. Pierre Martin Ngô-Dinh-Thuc",
February 13, 1978.) "EINSICHT, Jahrang 28 Sonder Mommer, pp. 14-17,
My study in Rome from a human point of view seems to be a series of
won every award: doctorate in philosophy, theology, canon law - with
honors or very good - and the teaching certificate at the Sorbonne. I
returned to Hue in 1927. I was first appointed as a professor in the
ranks of Vietnamese monks founded by Monsignor Allys. Allys,
then at the Seminary, then the principal of Providence, from which I
followed the Apostolic See to the Apostolic Vicariate of Vinh Long.
I am the third Vietnamese to be ordained bishop. The
first is Mgr. JB
Nguyen Ba Tong, Southerner, took Phat Diem in Tonkin. Second,
spiritual strength is the spiritual son of Monsignor Allys of the
Vinh Long apostolic church separated from the large Saigon Diocese
with the bishop of the holy bishop.Dumortier. That
One may know more about Ngo Dinh Thuc in a document by Charles Keith
Uplifted: The First Vietnamese Catholic Bishop and the Birth of a
National Church, 1919-1945"featured
four bishops smoke. These
ordinations from 1933 to 1945, they were powerful bishops and
honored indigenous Catholics in the spirit of the Vatican wanting to
localize the local church and make Vietnamese religious education
gradually gradually go to self-governing.
(Charles Keith, "The first Vietnamese Catholic." Bishop and the
Birth of a National Church, 1919-1945.) Translated by Pham Minh
Ngoc, posted on the Talawas.org forum)
It is a common honor for the Vietnamese Church, especially for
Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc. After
being ordained, Ngo Dinh Diem and Ngo Dinh Nhu went to many places
and people knew little about Diem since this time. As
soon as later in the United States, character Ngo Dinh Thuc
outperformed his younger brother Ngo Dinh Diem.
Later, the grandson called him by Uncle Nguyen, Archbishop Nguyen
Van Thuan, has a greater honor than the Cardinal in the Vatican, the
most important sheriff in the tide and received the special favor of
GH Phao Lo II. It
can not be easy in a family to get such good children.
Ngô Đinh Nhu, intelligent, witty, knowledgeable, knowledgeable,
confident, but heavy on theory, heavy on the plan. Temperament
cold, stubborn and not cause sympathy as well as the trust of
Both brothers are heavy family. And
if enough determined, Ngo Dinh Nhu can avoid the disaster for both
biggest thing that ruined his career was his wife. Nhu
is an excuse for the people to hate their family Ngo. Doan
Moi commented that Vietnamese people are not mature enough to accept
a person like Nhu. Especially
the arrogant claims of her in the Buddhist affair as adding fuel to
Mr. Ngo Dinh Thuc was relatively young. But
gradually he became the nail for the cursed life and shunned the
the episcopal authority, Bishop Thuc has caused controversy over
reverent bishops, priests and religious immigrants since 1957.
In a letter, three pages long, dated April 29, 1957, written in Vinh
Long, GM Thuc has spoken out loud, denouncing many priests who have
violated migration money and criticizing schools. Migrating to open
schools without any qualifications. While
the migrants claimed that they were devoted to him .. In contrast,
Gm Thục showed that many migrants have betrayed him.
"Some bishops have asked the ministry to arrest him for
advice.Another Bishop's soldiers hit the National Forest. I am
willing to answer their questions. "
(Nguyen Van Trung's private photocopy)
In my opinion, Thục's critique may be true in many respects. If
there is any form of criticism that has created internal divisions
within the Church. There
are other events, such as a GM soldier fighting the National Reality
About life, he also followed the power, arrogance and ignorance of
around him, most of the flatterers caught him off guard. In
short, he did not have the wisdom to separate the Way from Life, to
direct foot to life.
He was really a grave burier buried in the First Republic.
Edward Miller also wrote: "Diem
at first seemed to follow Thuc into the priesthood."
(Edward Miller, Misalliance, The United States and the Fifth
Republic of South Vietnam, 2013, p. 24).
Unfortunately, these letters were not publicly known to Archbishop
Nguyen Van Thuan and are not known to anyone today.
The remaining question is for what reason Duong Van Minh decided to
stop the rejection of indulgences for Ngo Dinh Can? The
simplest reason is that they are disgraceful, suspicious and not
According to Edward Miller, the start of a coup plot consists of
only three officers: Minh, Don and Kim. After
the unrest in 1960, all three felt insulted by being investigated
for involvement in the unsuccessful 1960 coup.
"The resentment that Don, Minh and Kim felt for the brothers had
been smoldering since 1960, when they had endured the humiliation of
being investigated on suspicion of involvement in the paratroopers'
(Edward Miller, ibid., P. 282).
The second personal reason, according to ls. Lam Trinh Trinh,
interviewed Colonel Nguyen Van Y, Colonel Y, that Duong Van Minh,
when fighting with Binh Xuyen, captured the gold. He
was hiding. But
both Colonel Nguyen Van Y and Defense Secretary Tran Trung Dung have
this file.Colonel Y presented Diem files, Diem sent Colonel Y burned
documents in front of him to clear DVM blame. However,
Duong Van Minh still hatred Diem and seek revenge.
Finally, Ngo Dinh Can was sentenced to death as everyone knew.
The study of the person and activities of Mr. Ngo Dinh Can can not
find out the documents on the American side. But
it's not easy to find an American document written about Mr. Can. Please
mention some familiar authors who are close to Mr. Can as Stanley
Karnow, 1997 for Viet Nam. A
History, Ellen J. Hammer, 1987 with A Death in November, Seth Jacob,
2006 with America's Miracle Man in Viet Nam, Mc Allister, James,
2008 Only Religions Count in Viet Nam: Thich Tri Quang and the Viet
Nam war. Langguth
A .J., 2000 Our Vietnam and Miller, Edward, 2013, Missalliance, Ngo
Dinh Diem, The United States, and the Fate of South Viet Nam.
Despite the small number of documents, we also try to gather the key
traits of Mr. Can.
The writer chose some of Ellen J. Hammer's ideas in A Death in
November regarding the November coup. E. Hammer:
"Probably the youngest sister to stay in Hue, he lives secretly
unknown and does not hold a formal position of government. His
position is only adviser on political parties. But
people know him very much in directing the regime's political and
military activities in the central provinces and he is known for
being brutal. "
(Ellen J. Hammer, A Death in November, 1987, p. 78)
Mr. Can is a pragmatic, unpretentious, intelligent man with an
expectation of legitimacy, a radical Nationalist with a practical
political instinct, with an understanding of the use of power in his
Evidence is that he has suppressed the Dai Viet and Vietnamese
Kuomintang groups in the central region. They
can not operate in the Central region when Cẩn is still there. He
has his own political and intelligence networks. But
Can's men's reports do not always match the information received in
Saigon by Nhu. To
be exact, Mr. Can's men were not as talented as he thought, so they
were invaded by the CIA.
Local political authority, ostensibly handed to Ho Dac Khuong - a
specialty of Hue. Ancestral
hereditary lineage from his life to father in Hue court. Ho
Dac Khuong family has relied on the Buddha as a credit in a large
area of Buddhism.
Is it necessary to have so many factors to sit firmly in Hue? Mr.
Can has all these factors, but lacks a fundamental element,
especially he is not a Buddhist. But
always stand behind the help of Buddhism.
An assessment of the Buddhist movement in the Central will help to
understand more about the views and positions of Mr. Ngo Dinh Can.
When the director of Cao Van Luan contacted Can to tell about Hue's
professors and students protesting the 25th anniversary of Ngo Dinh
Thuc's bishop's ordination. Mr.
Cẩn proved helpless to a brother Bishop daily pushed Ngo Dinh Can
out of power in Hue. Be
isolated because his brother is ignorant, arrogant to ridiculous. There
is a letter asking the parishes to ask them to support the
Thuc wants to strengthen his brother, the more he hurt his brother.
Talking about Cao Van Luan, without him, Hue University did not have
the opportunity to develop so quickly. This
university, it was built by Diem. It
was like a secret dream, an ambition of his own as well as a pride
of all Hue people. Yet
later on, it was here that triggered a political storm that
overthrew the man who gave birth to it.
Ellen Hammer has commented on Can Care based on Cao Van Luan's
claim, although Can not have high academic levels and certainly is
not a respected type of democracy. But
he was more knowledgeable and close to the people than any of the
Ngo Dinh Diem's brothers.
Complain about the lack of understanding of Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc
does not distinguish the religious, the life. Carefully
told the abbot, "But my hands are tied. My
brother, the archbishop does not listen to me anymore. You
have better go to Saigon and tell President Diem. "(Ellen J. Hammer,
ibid., P. 105)
The irony here is that Ngô Aình Thpc was bishop in Vĩnh Long for 23
years, and the Vatican was smart enough to never nominate Ngo Dinh
Thuc to govern Saigon, the reason the Vatican knew want to separate
power and authority. Should
not a leading Catholic president have a new archbishop headed by a
The selection of Archbishop Nguyen Van Binh as a moderate has
balanced the relationship between power and authority. Archbishop
Bong never showed close contact with the Ngo Dinh Diem government. He
avoided going to the Presidential Palace and avoided reception if he
could.And always keep a distance just enough.
The delivery of Ngo Dinh Thuc to Hue, far from the power center of
Saigon and perhaps the most fun person would be Ngo Dinh Nhu? Diem
could endure the elder brother, but Nhu was not patient enough, Nhu
was less disturbed by his brother's bereavement as a bishop who
interfered in his affairs. The government is foolishly wise,
recommends this person, recommends the other, even eliminates the
one you do not like. He
is a religious, not a life, does not understand the humanity of a
person who does not know the life. But
only willing to listen to the words of the gentleman flattering.
I have had many opportunities to comment on the face of boredom, not
revelation on the face of Nhu when he must attend the ceremony
hosted by Ngo Dinh Thuc at the University of Dalat in the 1960s.
Going back, he disappeared, never eating a pastry, drinking a glass
of wine congratulated as the ministers, MPs. Mr.
Thuc went to where there was a flock of flies, the shuttle picked up
from the airport, hurriedly hurried up the path to the University.
When he took office in Hue, General Tran Van Don was the mobilizer
of the army to welcome a Catholic Bishop. It
is true that the flatterer and rebellion Ngo Dinh Thi Nhat hated
most of the generals.
(This is not the first time, Bishop Thuc left Hue when he was a
priest and he was a professor at the Hue College before being
appointed bishop of Vinh Long. Pope once again campaigned Pope Paul
VI for the new government to return to Hue as the old one, but
But both the Vatican and Nhu did not realize that Ngo Dinh Thuc's
presence in Hue was a scourge for the Catholic Church as well! Hue
with a history of authority, a closed tradition with any intrusion
of authority from the outside to the sick. How
can they accept the shadow of a sovereign bishop, towering over the
sky of Huế? I
was in Hue, I understood the feelings of the people of this country,
poor to nothing to poorer. Land,
industry almost no. They
live by the donation of the Hue children sent to work and sent to
pay civil servants, soldiers on the spot.
But Hue is always hidden ring, but boiling hot as the kitchen
smoldering through the silent appearance.
After all, most of the political upheaval comes from here.
Therefore, only one person, Ngo Dinh Can, can live in Hue and grasp
the situation that people call Cẩn. A
name may be dear, but many despise. And
Cui rarely steps out of Hue, but what he also knows, as in the palm
of his hand and he has ruled Hue through the hands of his minions in
Hue with his hands folded velvet.
Thanks to that hand-covered velvet, Can also help to restore
monastery, the scene, travel intimate and cover for Tri Quang.
But perhaps the only mistake in the political life of Ngo Dinh Can
may have been to misjudge Tri Quang.
Hammer concluded, "The Mustard had underestimated Tri Quang.
On May 8, Tri Quang emerged from hidden darkness for many years
under the roof of Tu Dam Pagoda and became the leading political
figure and political power in Vietnam.
When Thuc left Hue, Can still believed that he could still be the
man of the situation, a bridge between government and Buddhism.
Comment on the activities of Ngo Dinh Can in Hue
The activities of Mr. Ngo Dinh Can is a criminal activity,
ounterintelligence newspapers are not within the framework of
administrative organizations. It
is a secret operation. Mu
Huong called Ngo Dinh Can secret police a "super-organization"
without "puppet" can be compared with.
(Nguyen Thi Ngoc Hai, "Tran Quoc Huong - Intelligence Commander,"
General Press, Ho Chi Minh City, p. 122)
It is because of its secrecy, operating outside the government
machinery has created many bad scandals, rumors spread rumors. Because
kidnapping is usually kidnapping, no warrant, no trial and
Even in the counterintelligence industry, Ngo Dinh Can secret police
are also suspected by agencies such as the Security Forces of the
Army, Special Forces, and the Political Research Service. Although
each sector has different areas of activity. Tran
Kim Tuyen's intelligence department focuses on internal security
such as investigating opposition parties. Do
Ma's security agency is concerned about military security. Le
Quang Tung's special forces consisted of a regiment whose primary
task was to protect the President.
In the interview of Mr. Lam Le Trinh with Duong Van Hieu, Head of
the Central Mission of the Central Region, "Head of the delegation
Duong Van Hieu spoke out," said Duong Van Hieu as follows:
Colonel Nguyen Van Y (1922-2012). Source:
Colonel Nguyen Van Y, General Director of Police, as well as Tran
Kim Tuyen, Le Quang Tung (Special Forces) and Do Mau do not like me.
(Lam Sin Trinh, "Awakening, National and Communist", in his post,
Duong Van Hieu, page 425)
(Duong Van Hieu, a native of Ha Nam, North Vietnam in a middle-class
family, attends Louis Pasteur College, holds a Diplôme Diplôme d
'Early primaires supérieures). Married
in 1948, his father is Dr. Nguyen Van Tam, in collaboration with Le
Huu Tu, Phat Diem. After
the Geneva Accords in the South, he was Vo Nhu Nguyen, Director of
Public Security of Central Vietnam recruited in the police sector,
holding the position of Head of CA-CS Trung Nguyen. Then
became Chief of Police Department of Thua Thien Hue Province and Hue
1957, the governor of Thua Thien Nguyen Dinh Can and the delegate of
the government Ho Dac Khuong introduced enthusiastically to
President Diem. In
1958, he was assigned to the Special Task Force for Central Vietnam
(SADC) working in Saigon.
Although Mr. Duong Van Hieu did not clarify his dislike. But
we can still find out as follows:
There are many intelligence departments, although they are divided
into areas of activity or scope of work. But
there is still cross and footing. For
example, Mr. Duong Van Hieu, Head of Mission working in the Central. But
after being moved to the South of operation, the headquarters was in
Le Van Duyet camp. He
went to South to work under Mr. Can's instructions. But
when he needed to report something, he only officially reported to
Ngo Dinh Nhu, or when it mattered, he met directly General Diem. Sometimes
he just sent some copies of the report to Mr. Can.
Although Duong Van Hieu's activities are confidential and
in terms of administration, he was paid a salary by the National
Police, so all operating expenses, such as wages, food, and
judgments, were paid by the Administration Department of the Police
Department, Administered by Nguyen Thanh Assist. Because
officially, in secret administration, he still belongs to Public
Security Bureau of Thua Thien. Because
there are special work that General Nha does not provide the means
of money, then through Vo Van Hai with money taken from the
Presidential Black Fund to cover. This
amount does not matter just as a bonus or incentive. Considering
that in terms of Administration, Nguyen Van Y do not doubt? Mr.
Duong Van Hieu also revealed that his delegation did not receive any
of Mr. Can.
Because of the way of doing so, because there is no such public
office as director - for example, in order to have a place to live,
Duong Van Hieu must own money to buy a house in Xa Cong Ly .And
because he did not work directly with Can, he was later suspected of
being too close to Saigon and causing difficulties for him as well
as Pham Thu Duong, Both Nguyen Van Minh, Secretary of Can is also
Trinh, ibid., P. 437)
On the side of the Revolutionary Court, later put Duong Van Hieu in
court and see him as the mastermind and responsible for many arrests
and assassinations of people by the order Ngo Dinh Can, in my
opinion, is very ambiguous. For
example, the assassinations of dissidents such as Nguyen Bao Toan,
Ta Chi Diep and Vu Tam Anh. On
this point, Duong Van Hieu replied to Lam Sin Trinh, "We do not
are not responsible for hunting down opposition figures. "According
to Duong Van Hieu, it was later learned that this work was being
conducted by Judge Khuyen Hai and his teammates in the Special
Police Division of the Police Department. Colonel Nguyen Van Y
killed Nguyen Bao Toan and Ta Chi Diep.
However, what I am surprised to believe is that Duong Van Hieu
revealed that his staff consisted of only eight employees and two
these eight employees can manipulate the network of communist spies?
And if you know more or less, there is a bad prejudice about him. In
which many talked about secret mission of Ngo Dinh Can.
But can I affirm that the Hue people themselves really do not know
the specific work and work of this delegation like? Positive
aspects are effective, people are not known.
For example, the Central Special Forces broke all of the system of
the Zone 5 message system within two years and has since spread to
Quang Ngai, Quang Tri, Binh Thuan and Quy Nhon.
This achievement was so great that a legion was unlikely to pacify.
Even Tran Van Don, who was a General of the 1st Corps in the
Central, was virtually ignorant of the effective anti-Communist
activities of the Central Special Forces. He
underestimated Mr. Can's ability to stop communist intelligence
engaging in the National Machine. That
proved at the position of Commander of Army I at that time, he did
not know anything about Agent Can he deal with communists.
That gives us the following lesson: The officers of the West left
are often lacking in Nationalism, lacking in anti-communist ideals.
They were just office workers, depressing and incompetent, after the
overthrow of the First Republic. They
have no political vision, no plans, no programming and are
completely helpless, passive from the early days after 1963.
Such a general, but even so ignorant of ordinary people.
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